The World Health Organization once put forward a statement of the "four cornerstones" of health, which is translated into Chinese as "a reasonable diet, quitting smoking and limiting alcohol, proper exercise, and mental balance." For the elderly, how should we correctly understand these 16 words?
"Reasonable diet" refers to a good combination of various nutrients in the diet. The elderly have poor digestion ability, so they should choose more nutritious and easy-to-digest foods. Milk contains more high-quality protein, lactose, rich vitamins and calcium. Most elderly people have osteoporosis. Drinking milk often can supplement calcium. Generally, 1 to 2 bottles per day are suitable. Individuals who drink milk may have diarrhea, so you can drink yogurt. Lactobacillus in yogurt is good for health. Lactobacillus can adjust the flora in the intestines, and even regulate intestinal function. It is effective for mild constipation and diarrhea. Eggs are rich in nutrients and easy to digest and absorb. Don't worry about the cholesterol in eggs. Cholesterol is an important component of the cell wall. The trillions of cells in the human body are constantly undergoing metabolism and require a certain amount of cholesterol to form the cell wall. Cholesterol is also the precursor of many hormones and even anti-cancer antibodies. Studies abroad have found that 70-80-year-old people with low blood cholesterol have more chances of developing cancer. In fact, cholesterol intake in the body can evolve into low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or it can evolve into high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The former is an important pathogenic factor of atherosclerosis, while the latter is an anti-atherosclerotic factor, the so-called "bad cholesterol" and "good cholesterol". A person needs about 300 mg of cholesterol per day, which is approximately equivalent to the content of an egg yolk. Therefore, if the blood cholesterol content is not high, it is okay to eat one egg a day. The protein of fish is also very good. The fat in fish is mostly the omega-3 fatty acids in unsaturated fatty acids, which can even reduce atherosclerosis. Therefore, it is recommended that the elderly should eat fish 2 to 3 times a week. Chinese Han compatriots eat a lot of vegetables, but they put too much oil when cooking, which is not good for health. Eating too much salt can cause high blood pressure. Some elderly people with high blood pressure can't control their blood pressure. They should pay more attention to controlling salt intake and eat lightly as much as possible. Too much salt can damage the gastric mucosa, so people with stomach problems should also eat lightly. The "Chinese Resident Dietary Guidelines (2007)" recommends that each person eat no more than 6 grams of salt per day, while those with high blood pressure should take 3 grams, and this should also include the salt contained in soy sauce and cooked vegetables. Therefore, it is necessary to eat lighter and lighter. It is recommended that the elderly eat more fresh vegetables and fruits. Vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamins and inorganic salts, as well as a lot of fiber to keep the stool smooth and healthy. Especially fruits do not need to be processed and cooked, and their nutrients are better preserved. Nutritionists recommend that the fresh vegetables and fruits consumed per person per day should not be less than 500 grams.
"Quit smoking and limit alcohol" is also very important. Smoking is harmful but not beneficial, and the relationship between smoking and cancer has long been affirmed. Smoking can also induce coronary heart disease. If people with coronary heart disease smoke again, the risk of heart infarction will increase significantly. Sending is a very important thing for the elderly. Smoking can cause "old chronic bronchitis", and "old chronic bronchitis" can cause emphysema, pulmonary heart disease and respiratory failure. Therefore, the elderly should not smoke, it is best to quit smoking, at least smoking less, so as not to aggravate respiratory diseases. Alcohol has the effect of dilating blood vessels. The elderly occasionally drink alcohol, as long as the amount is not too much, it is not necessary. However, alcohol is metabolized into acetaldehyde in the human body. Acetaldehyde is a certain hepatotoxic substance, and no matter how much it is, it is actually toxic to the liver. In recent years, people who drink some alcohol every day have also been found. Although the amount is not large, accumulation over the years may increase the incidence of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's syndrome, which causes involuntary hand and foot shaking.
"Appropriate exercise" is of course even more important for the elderly. "Life lies in movement" is a famous saying that everyone knows. Proper exercise can make the muscles strong, joints flexible, and quick eyes and hands. Exercise can enhance cardiopulmonary function and increas